Policy Papers
Trade in Black Sea Countries

The war in Ukraine has significantly altered trade dynamics in the Black Sea region. Firstly, it has created security challenges and increased tensions between countries. On the other hand, it has also unlocked opportunities to utilize the potential of the Black Sea as a strategic location and international transport route. With this context in mind, it is important to analyze intra-Black Sea countries’ trade, to identify the patterns and volumes of goods exchanged among these countries, and to determine the dynamics of regional economic cooperation and transportation networks. This bulleting provides analysis of the trade data of Black Sea countries and present the main trends in trade in and among Black Sea countries and provides some recommendations on how to both address existing challenges and realize opportunities

Determining the Prime Cost of Railway Transportation and Identifying Variable Components

This paper set out to provide transportation planners and policymakers with a systematic process through which to estimate costs representative of the area and service in question and to ease their analysis and decision-making procedures. Although the methodology presented herein is not meant to replace the in-depth and detailed feasibility studies or professional railroad planning activities, it can be used as an intermediate tool to allow planners to more easily perform railroad analysis and planning activities, prior to contracting out feasibility studies. Finally, should this research be further developed, it ought to address other categories of railway services, such as intercity and high-speed trains.


Inflation and Monetary Policy in Black Sea Countries

Since mid-2020, when stringent restrictions were imposed to combat the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, inflation has been running at multi-decade highs in many countries across the globe. In 2022 in particular, inflationary pressures from pandemic-related disruptions were exacerbated by the Russo-Ukrainian War and spiking food and energy prices. In response, central banks implemented different monetary policy approaches in an attempt to stabilize the situation. Against this background, recent inflationary trends and monetary policy approaches adopted by economically diverse Black Sea countries are analyzed and compared in this issue of Black Sea bulletin.

Maritime Trade in the Black Sea in the Context of the Russo-Ukrainian War

The Black Sea region is often referred to as a gateway between Europe and Asia, though its potential benefits are far from being fully realized. This is especially true for maritime trade - the Black Sea region’s share in international maritime trade is only just 2.5%, while the North Sea region accounts for 17%. And despite there being huge potential in the enhancement of port infrastructure and connectivity in the Black Sea region countries, the varying and distinctive geopolitical orientations of these countries largely hinder any significant advancement in regional cooperation.

The problem became even more severe with the latest military conflict in the region – the Russian invasion of Ukraine in February 2022, which besides aggravating cooperation problems has significantly shaken up the landscape of the Black Sea’s port infrastructure and maritime trade in the region and the security dynamics not only in the wider Black Sea region, but it has also affected the European and, arguably, global security architecture.

China, EU and Georgia Nexus: Unpacking the Economic and Political Relations

The main objective of the research is to study the impacts that free trade agreements with the EU (DCFTA) and China had on Georgian economy and political implications that they might result in.

Assessment of the Trade Facilitation Component of Georgia’s Peace Initiative - A Step to a Better Future

The following research discusses the New Peace Initiative entitled “A Step to A Better Future,” launched in April 2018 by the Government of Georgia.


Connectivity, Trade and Financial Integration of the South Caucasus Via the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI)

Publication provides an overview of how the initiative could advance relations between China and the three countries of the South Caucasus, namely Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. The publication also sketched out the dynamics of the BRI related to transport connectivity, bilateral trade and foreign direct investment.

Economic Diplomacy in Georgia: Existing Practice and Future Prospects

The purposes of this policy paper are to present the priorities of the Government of Georgia (GoG) in economic diplomacy, to map economic diplomacy institutions, and to describe their functions. It also aims to present practical cases of conducting economic diplomacy. Case studies of selected EU Member States which have assigned strategic importance to economic diplomacy in achieving their economic development goals are presented and these contribute to the elaboration of recommendations for Georgia.

The Belt and Road Initiative in the South Caucasus Region

The aim of the project is to study the impact of the BRI on the countries of Central Asia and the South Caucasus (CASC) and ascertain how these countries individually and through regional cooperative efforts can maximize the benefits of the BRI and manage any potential risks.

Options for Railway Infrastructure Development in Tbilisi

This study compares the following four alternatives: keeping the status quo (Option 1); the 2009 Tbilisi Railway Bypass Project (Option 2); a city tunnel from Navtlughi district to Didube district (Option 3); and retaining the city’s main railway line and central station, but relocating all other railway infrastructure from the Didube-Nadzaladevi districts to the city’s peripheral districts (Option 4).